Outer Freedom and Inner Bondage

In America and much of the West, the common understanding of the word "freedom" is something I might call "outer" freedom: Freedom from outside control and persecution, especially from government or religious institutions. The religious wars of post-Catholic Europe and the immorality of the medieval aristocracy shaped the concepts of rights and democracy in England, … Continue reading Outer Freedom and Inner Bondage

The Place of the Chinese Āgamas in Buddhist Literature

The Chinese Buddhist canon is unique in that it contains a record of the scriptures and philosophical texts that were circulating in Central Asia and India during the peak of Buddhist literary creativity between 0 CE and the arrival of Islam. Most of the major works were translated several times over a period of about … Continue reading The Place of the Chinese Āgamas in Buddhist Literature